Kamis, 18 April 2013

Perbedaan phonetics dan phonology

 Phonetics and Phonology -Differences



The study of the system of speech sounds in a language, or the system of sounds itself.
The science and study of the speech sounds.
The branch of linguistic dealing with the way speech sounds behave in particular languages or in language generally. It examines pattern of sounds.
The study of speech sounds. Phonetics deals with the physical nature of speech sounds and not with their relations to other speech sounds in particular languages.
The science of speech sounds including especially the history and the theory of sound change in a languages or in two or more related languages.
1: The system of speech sounds of a language or group of languages.2a: The study and systematic classification of the sounds made in spoken utterance.2b: The practical application of this science to language study.
Pattern of sounds, especially different patterns of sounds in difference languages, or within each language, different patterns of sound in different positions in words etc.
Deals with the production of speech sounds by humans, often without prior knowledge of the language being spoken.
a: Studies of how sounds interact as a system in a particular language.B: Studies of how these sounds combine and how they change in combination, as well as which sounds can contrast to produce differences in meaning (phonology describes the phones as allophones of phonemes).
a: Simply describes the articulatory and acoustic properties of phones (speech sounds)b: Phonetics studies which sounds are present in a language.
The study of pronunciation of words and sentences.
Deals with speech sounds, especially how they are produced and perceived.

conditional sentences

Conditional Clause and Main Clause
If I have enough money,
conditional clause    
I will go to Japan.
    main clause
I will go to Japan,
main clause    
if I have enough money
    conditional clause
First, Second, and Third Conditional

1.    First conditional:

( Present Real Conditional )

If I have enough money, I will go to Japan.
2.    Second conditional:

     ( Present Unreal Conditonal )

If I had enough money, I would go to Japan.
3.    Third conditional:

     ( Past Unreal Conditional )

If I had had enough money, I would have gone to Japan.

Conditional clause
Main clause
1. If + Present Tense
will + inf / present tense / imperative
  1. If you help me with the dishes (if + pres),
    I will help you with your homework. (will + inf)
  2. If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by three,
    the number is divisible by three (Pres. tense)
  3. If you see Mr Fox tonight, tell him I am ill. (imperative).
2. If + Past Tense
would + inf
3. If + Past Perfect Tense
would have + past participle
We do not normally use will or would in the conditional clause,
only in the main clause.
Uses of the Conditional
  1. First conditional
    1. Nature: Open condition, what is said in the condition is possible.
    2. Time: This condition refers either to present or to future time.
      e.g. If he is late, we will have to go without him.
      If my mother knows about this, we are in serious trouble.

  1. Second conditional
    1. Nature: unreal (impossible) or improbable situations.
    2. Time: present; the TENSE is past, but we are talking about the present, now.
      e.g. If I knew her name, I would tell you.
      If I were you, I would tell my father.
      Compare: If I become president, I will change the social security system. (Said by a presidential candidate)
      If I became president, I would change the social security system. (Said by a schoolboy: improbable)
      If we win this match, we are qualified for the semifinals.
      If I won a million pounds, I would stop teaching. (improbable)

  1. Third conditional
    1. Nature: unreal
    2. Time: Past (so we are talking about a situation that was not so in the past.)
      e.g. If you had warned me, I would not have told your father about that party.(But you didn't, and I have).
1. The conditional construction does not normally use will or would in if-clauses. EXCEPTION: If will or would express willingness, as in requests, they can be used in if-clauses.
e.g. If you will come this way, the manager will see you now.
I would be grateful if you would give me a little help.
(= ± please, come this way; please, give me...)
2. For the second conditional, were replaces was:
If I were a rich man...
3. After if, we can either use "some(-one, -where...)" or "any(-one, -where...).
If I have some spare time next weekend....or :
If I have any spare time...
4. Instead of if not, we can use unless.
e.g. I'll be back tomorrow unless there is a plane strike.
He'll accept the job unless the salary is too low.
5.There is a "mixed type" as well, for the present results of an unreal condition in the past:
If + Past Perfect - would + inf.
If you had warned me [then], I would not be in prison [now].

Rabu, 17 April 2013

Cara membuat kalimat tanya dalam Bahasa Inggris

Cara membuat kalimat tanya dalam Bahasa Inggris
Dalam speaking, kita hampir selalu menggunakan kalimat tanya. Hal ini karena si pembicara ingin mengetahui informasi tertentu dari lawan bicara. Seperti halnya dalam bahasa Indonesia, tipe pertanyaan dalam bahasa Inggris ada 2 yaitu pertanyaan yang hanya membutuhkan jawaban yes/no dan pertanyaan yang membutuhkan explanation (information questions). Tulisan ini membahas cara membuat yes/no questions, question tag, information questions, dan embedded questions.
Sebelum kita membahas kedua tipe tersebut, ada 4 simple rules yang perlu diingat ketika membuat questions, antara lain:
• Tenses. Apa yang ditanyakan harus sesuai dengan waktu kejadian/aktivitas. Sebagai contoh, there was a party at school last night. I didn’t go because I was sick. Therefore, I don’t know who came to the party, how many people came, how the party was, etc. Sekarang saya ingin tahu tentang pesta sekolah itu dengan bertanya kepada teman kelas saya:
o Did you go to the party?
o How many people came?
o How was the party? etc. Jadi, karena kejadian/aktivitas dinyatakan dengan past tense, maka kalimat tanya juga harus dinyatakan dalam past tense. INCORRECT jika:
o Do you go to the party?
o How many people come?
o How is the party? etc.
• Untuk yes/no questions, lakukan inversi atau tempatkan auxiliary/be/kata bantu sebelum subject kalimat.
• Untuk information questions, tempatkan kata tanya sebelum auxiliary/be/kata bantu. Tetapi, jika yang ditanyakan adalah subject kalimat, inversi auxiliary/be/kata bantu tidak diperlukan. Yang diperlukan hanyalah mengganti subject kalimat dengan kata tanya.
• Embedded question selalu dalam bentuk affirmative (kalimat positif) atau kalimat negatif, tetapi tidak pernah dalam bentuk kalimat tanya. Kesalahan pada umumnya terjadi karena dilakukannya inversi auxiliary/be/kata bantu ke depan subject kalimat.
Sekarang, let’s start from yes/no questions.
A. Yes/No questions
Yes/no questions dapat kita bagi menjadi positive dan negative yes/no questions.
1. Positive yes/no questions.
Pola-pola kalimat tanya yang telah diberikan pada pembahasan tiap tenses secara umum dapat diringkas menjadi:
Do/does/did + subject + verb . . .
1. Have you finished doing your homework?
2. Will you go to watch a movie with me tonight?
3. Is she pretty?
4. Does he always go to school on foot?
5. Did you visit your parents during holiday?
Note: Kesalahan biasanya terjadi pada kalimat yang menggunakan simple present tense dan past tense. Kesalahan ini umumnya karena lupa mengubah verb1+(s/es) dan verb2 menjadi verb1.
• INCORRECT: Does she often practices her English?
• CORRECT : Does she often practice her English? Yes, she does.
• INCORRECT: Did you loved her?
• CORRECT : Did you love her? Yes, I did.
Untuk tensis yang lainnya biasanya jarang tejadi kesalahan karena bentuk verb-nya tidak berubah. Silakan baca kembali pola yes/no question untuk 16 Tensis dalam Bahasa Inggris. Atau click link tensis yang ingin anda review di bagian comment tulisan ini.
2. Negative yes/no questions
Pola yang sangat formal untuk negative yes/no questions adalah NOT diletakkan setelah subject.
Do/does/did + subject + NOT + verb . . .
Tapi, pola di atas sangat jarang digunakan dibandingkan dengan pola berikut:
Do/does/did NOT + subject + verb . . .
Note: NOT pada umumnya dikontraksi dengan auxiliary/be/do/does/did (i.e. can’t, won’t, isn’t, don’t, hasn’t, etc).
Kapan kita menggunakan negatif yes/no questions? Negative yes/no questions umumnya digunakan:
a. Jika si pembicara sudah tahu apa yang ditanyakan, tapi belum 100% yakin.
1. Isn’t the earth that travels around the sun? (Bukankah bumi yang mengitari matahari?). Di sini si penanya ingin memastikan bahwa bumilah yang mengitari bumi dan bukan sebaliknya.
2. Aren’t you making spaghetti? (Bukankah kamu sedang masak spaghetti?)
3. Didn’t you fail this course last semester? (Bukankah kamu tidak lulus mata kuliah ini semester lalu?).
4. Wasn’t he playing chess with you when I went to his house last night?
5. Hasn’t she seen the Ayat-Ayat Cinta? (Bukankah dia sudah nonton film Ayat-Ayat Cinta?).
6. Aren’t they going to see a movie tonight? etc.
b. Ketika si pembicara surprise, shock, jengkel, atau marah.
1. Aren’t you supposed to be at school now? Misalnya, karena YOU di rumah pada saat jam sekolah.
2. Doesn’t your class start at 7 o’clock? Misalnya, sudah hampir jam 7 tapi YOU masih belum mandi/siap ke sekolah.
3. What happened? Didn’t you study? Siapa suruh tidak belajar. Gurunya jengkel tuh.
B. Question tag
Dalam question tag, si pembicara membuat pernyataan tapi dia tidak yakin sepenuhnya terhadap apa yang dia bicarakan.
Berikut adalah rules dalam membuat question tag:
• Auxiliary/be pada question tag harus sama dengan auxiliary/be pada main clause (pokok kalimat). Jika di main clause tidak ada auxiliary/be, gunakan kata bantu do, does, atau did.
• Jika main clause-nya negatif, maka question tag-nya positif. Sebaliknya, jika main clause-nya positif, maka question tag-nya negatif. Note: kadang-kadang main clause bermakna negatif walaupun tidak menggunakan NOT. Dalam hal ini, question tagnya adalah positif. (Lihat contoh: 8, 9). Misalnya,
o jika subject-nya nobody, no one, nothing, etc
o jika verb-nya dislike, disagree, etc
o jika adverb-nya never, hardly, etc
o jika adjective-nya unhappy, immobile, irregular, etc.
• Jangan rubah tensisnya. Misalnya, jika main clause dalam past tense, maka question tag juga harus dalam past tense.
• Subject dari question tag selalu dalam bentuk subject pronoun (i.e. I, she, he, it, you, they, dan we). Subject pronoun ini harus sesuai dengan subject dari main clause yang digantikannya.
• Perhatikan perubahan subject main clause ke subject question tag berikut:
Main clause Question tag
There there
Everything/nothing it
Everyone/ no one
everybody/nobody they
• Jika question tag-nya negatif, ada 2 pola yang bisa digunakan, yaitu dengan mengkontraksi NOT menjadi n’t kemudian menggabungkannya dengan auxiliary/be/kata bantu di depannya.
[(Auxiliary/be/do/does/did)+n't ]+ subject?
Atau gunakan pola berikut:
(Auxiliary/be/do/does/did) + subject + not?
• Khusus untuk be am, question tag-nya adalah am I not (formal) atau aren’t I (in speaking) jika negatif, atau am I jika positif. Lihat contoh: 14 & 15.
• Jika main clause menggunakan verb have/has atau need, in American English, question tag-nya mengggunakan kata bantu do/does atau did. (Lihat contoh 9 & 10).
1. They didn’t study last night, did they?
2. She hasn’t met the new student, has she?
3. You are not allergic to pollens, are you? (Kamu tidak alergi terhadap tepung sari bunga, bukan?).
4. You will open that door for me, won’t you?
5. It’s holiday tomorrow, isn’t it?
6. There were a lot of people coming to the party last night, weren’t there?
7. No one called me, did they? (Tidak ada orang yang nelpon saya, bukan?)
8. Your friends never learn English seriously, do they? (Teman-temanmu tidak pernah belajar bahasa Inggris dengan serius, bukan?).
9. We need some extra money, don’t we?
10. She has a dimple on her left cheek, does she not? (Dia punya lesung pipi di pipi kirinya, bukan?). Perhatikan penempatan not!
11. In cartoon, Tom and Jerry always fight, do they not?
12. Apples and grapes are her favorites, are they not?
13. I am included, am I not?
14. I am not ugly, am I?
15. Everybody looks happy with our decision, don’t they?
C. Information questions
Information questions adalah kalimat tanya yang membutuhkan jawaban berupa explanation (penjelasan). Kata tanya yang digunakan dapat berupa single word: what, where, why, who, whom, whose, which atau how; atau berupa phrase: whose + noun (noun-nya siapa), how long (berapa lama/berapa panjang), how many (berapa banyak), how much (berapa banyak), how often, what time, what kind (tipe/jenis/macam apa), which one (yang manakah), etc.
Ada 2 pola information questions, yaitu:
a. Jika yang ditanyakan adalah subject kalimat. Inversi auxiliary/be/do/does/did tidak diperlukan. Yang diperlukan hanyalah mengganti subject kalimat dengan kata tanya. Kata tanya yang dapat digunakan dalam pola ini adalah what, who, dan kata tanya berupa phrase (i.e. whose+noun, how many+noun, how much+noun, etc.) .
Kata tanya berupa phrase + verb + (object) + (modifier)
1. Someone cleaned the house. Who cleaned the house? INCORRECT jika: Who did clean the house?
2. Somebody has been killed. Who has been killed?
3. Jeny is smiling at her boyfriend’s photo. Who is smiling at her boyfriend’s photo?
4. John just did the homework a few minutes ago. Who just did the homework a few minutes ago? Di kalimat ini, DID bukan kata bantu, melainkan verb2 dari DO.
5. Something happened this morning. What happened this morning? INCORRECT jika: What did happen this morning?
6. The increased gas price makes people unhappy. What makes people unhappy? INCORRECT jika: What does make people unhappy?
7. Daniel’s book has been stolen. Whose book has been stolen? (Bukunya siapa telah dicuri?).
8. Rembrandt’s painting received a one-million dollars offer. Whose painting received a one-million dollars offer? (offer = tawaran harga).
9. More than two hundred people came to the party. How many people came to the party?
10. There are two cars parked in front of your house. Which one is yours? (Yang manakah mobilmu?). The red one is mine.
b. Jika yang ditanyakan adalah selain subject kalimat. Polanya adalah kata tanya + yes/no questions.
KATA TANYA + Auxiliary
Do/does/did + subject + verb . . .
1. Jessica has known Andika since she was 7 years old. Whom has Jessica known since she was 7 years old? Note: Walaupun who lebih sering digunakan dalam speaking, tetapi dalam writing/ujian, gunakanlah selalu whom jika orang yang ditanyakan posisinya object kalimat.
2. My brother just bought a new computer yesterday. What did your brother just buy yesterday?
3. John is leaving for Jakarta tomorrow morning. When is John leaving for Jakarta?
4. Nining lives on jalan Sudirman. Where does she live?
5. You look so happy. Why do you look so happy?
6. How is she? (Bagaimana kabar/keadaan dia?)
7. I saw Marita’s car heading north on my way here. Whose car did you see? (Mobil siapa yang kamu lihat?). (heading north =menuju/ke arah utara)
8. Maria and Mario have been seeing each other for 5 years. How long have they been seeing each other? (Berapa lama mereka telah pacaran?).
9. I like this cell phone. How much does it cost? (Berapa harganya?). Note: Gunakan how much jika yang ditanyakan adalah uncountable noun.
10. How much money do you want to borrow from me? Jika konteksnya sudah jelas, kalimatnya cukup dengan: How much do you want to borrow from me?
11. Budi has a lot of non-fiction books. How many non-fiction books does Budi have? Note: Gunakan how many jika yang ditanyakan adalan countable noun.
12. To keep her body slim, Jacqueline goes to the gym three times a week. How often does she go to the gym to keep her body slim?
13. What time will your plane take off? (Jam berapa pesawat kamu akan tingal landas?)
14. What kind of music do you like the most? (Musik jenis apa yang paling kamu sukai?)
15. When will you give me a chance to love you? (chance = opportunity = kesempatan)
D. Embedded Questions
Embedded question adalah pertanyaan yang sudah tersirat dalam sebuah kalimat,
Subject + verb + KATA TANYA + subject + verb.
atau pertanyaan yang sudah tersirat dalam sebuah kalimat tanya yang lain:
Do/does/did + subject + verb + KATA TANYA + subject + verb.
Note: Walaupun bermakna pertanyaan, pola embedded question TIDAK PERNAH dalam bentuk tanya.
1. Some students still don’t know when they should submit their assignment. INCORRECT jika: Some students still don’t know when should they submit their assignment. Incorrect karena auxilliary should diletakkan sebelum subject kalimat.
2. Nobody can predict when the Lapindo disaster will end. INCORRECT jika: Nobody can predict when will the Lapindo disaster end.
3. I just want to know what kind of music you like the most. INCORRECT jika: I just want to know what kind of music do you like the most.
4. Has Jessica ever told you whom she has known since she was 7 years old? INCORRECT jika: Has Jessica ever told you whom has she known since she was 7 years old?
5. Do you want to know what my brother just bought yesterday? INCORRECT jika: Do you want to know what did my brother just buy yesterday?
6. Do you know when John is leaving for Jakarta?
7. Could you tell me where I can find this address?
8. I don’t know for how long that guy has been standing there.
9. I am not sure who will be elected president?
10. Do you have any idea how tall Dany is? He is perfect for a basketball player.
11. Ms. Andini’s first son has studied at the university already but Ms. Andini still looks very young. Do you know how old she actually is?
WAS digunakan jika subjectnya I, he, she, it (dan juga noun yang dapat digantikan dengan he, she atau it), sedangkan WERE digunakan jika subjectnya you, they, we (serta noun yang dapat digantikan dengan they atau we). Kedua be ini dapat digunakan dalam:
1. Simple Past tense, kalau kalimatnya tidak menggunakan verb.


1.    I was very happy when I met her.
2.    Amir and Budi were absent yesterday.
3.    Amir was sick while Budi was overslept.
4.    Were you mad at me?
5.    He was not with her last night
2. Simple past tense, kalau kalimatnya menggunakan semi modal auxiliary seperti be able to, be capable of, be get used to, be supposed to, dst.


1.    He was able to solve the problem.
2.    They were capable of defeating their fear.
3.    I was getting used to the cold weather when the first winter arrived.
4.    My little brother was supposed to study for the exam but he watched TV instead.

1.    She was crying when I saw her.
2.    We were studying when Amir came.
3.    They were playing football at 4 p.m. yesterday.
4.    I saw Budi’s car. It was heading north.

1.    I was going to meet him yesterday but I didn’t because of rain.
2.    They were going to come to my house this morning, but for some reasons they didn’t come.
3.    He was going to marry her but he didn’t because his parents rejected her.

1.    She told me that she was going to be studying at 8 last night.
2.    Amir said that he was going to be watching the Barcelona vs Arsenal game at 3 this morning.
3.    They told me that they were going to be playing football at 3 p.m. yesterday.
Selain itu, was dan were juga digunakan pada kalimat pasif yang menggunakan ke empat tensis di atas.
Polanya sbb:


1.    The study was conducted from January to December last year.
2.    The chairs were moved to the storage room this morning.
3.    He was kissed by his girlfriend.
4.    She was given another opportunity.
5.    We were invited by Budi.
6.    Were you invited by Budi?
7.    No, I wasn’t invited by Budi.
Polanya sbb:


1.    The laptop was still being fixed when I got there.
2.    They were being interrogated by the school principal.
3.    She was being kept in the room by the kidnappers when the police found her.
Polanya sbb:


1.    My friend told me that you were going to be given a nice present.
2.    The reporter said that the psychopath was going to be executed soon.
Polanya sbb:


1.    The tables were going to be being moved at noon.
2.    Maria said that my favorite song was going to be being sung when I arrived.